Electric power engineering

Electric power engineering  and alternative energy sources

Electric power engineering

“GJC Uzbektenergo” - is a vertical integrating company, which includes: electric power stations which generate electricity, infrastructures which transmit electricity, the company sells electricity to consumers, constructing, operating and other enterprises serving the electricity industry.

The economy of the company with a centralized population and industries provides electricity, as well as provides separate cities and industrial enterprises of the republic, as well as communal household consumers of thermal energy. The company's main shares are held by thermal power plants that operate in natural gas and coal. The remaining capacities will be provided by small and medium hydroelectric stations.

Within the framework of the adopted Program of Measures for the Further Development of Hydropower for 2017-2021, the further development of the country's hydropower potential is envisaged on the basis of the construction of 42 new and 32 modernized hydroelectric power stations, with the expansion by 2025 of the capacities of clean hydroelectric of the republic by 1.7 times.

At the same time, despite the measures taken, the energy intensity of the domestic economy remains high, the level of diversification of the fuel and energy balance due to the involvement in the industrial production of renewable energy sources does not meet world trends. The structure of primary fuel for the production of electrical and thermal energy is dominated by natural gas and other traditional types of hydrocarbon fuel.

In the production of electricity and heat energy, the existing high potential of renewable energy sources (solar, wind and biogas, hydro power of small natural and artificial watercourses) are not  practically used.

In order to expand the use of renewable energy sources, reduce the energy intensity of production, target the introduction into practice of domestic scientific and technical developments and research of advanced approved international energy-saving technologies, implement priority directions in this area, defined by the Strategy of Action for the five priority development directions of the Republic of Uzbekistan in 2017-2021

determined by priority directions of further development of renewable energy, energy efficiency improvement in the economy and social sphere for 2017 - 2021:

inculcation of innovative technologies, scientific and technical developments in the field of development of renewable energy and energy efficiency, increasing  of production and localization of energy-saving equipment and devices, including through the transfer of technology and the creation of engineering centers;

diversification of the fuel and energy balance in the part of electricity production using renewable and alternative energy sources, energy recycling of secondary energy resources, involvement of business entities in the creation of generating capacities on the basis of proven technologies for the use of solar, wind energy, micro and small hydroelectric power stations;

reduction of energy intensity of the produced products by creating new and modernized, technical and technological re-equipment of existing capacities on the basis of the introduction of modern energy-efficient and energy-saving technologies.

At the present time, the total length of the transmission line of electric networks with a voltage of 0.4-500 kV exceeds more than 243 thousand km, the number of power stations used is 35 kV and above 1673, their total transformer capacity is more than 40 million kW, and today the voltage is 6 -10 kV are available and operate in the amount of 67574 units of transformer points. Their total capacity is 22.5 million kW.

"Electroset" SC performs the functions of transportation and distribution of electric energy by electric grids from power distributing and realizing enterprises produced by energy sources. These works are performed by the length of the transmission line of 10 thousand km with a voltage of 110-500 kV main lines of electrical networks. There are 76 power plants in the enterprises and power transformers are installed in them that make up the total capacity of 20 million kW.

The regional enterprise of electric networks to the consumers of enterprises delivers electrical energy at 0.4-110 kV voltages. Using power lines. With a line length of 226.9 thousand km.

The thermal power industry provides for the modernization and expansion of the construction of new power plants, the introduction of modern energy-generating technologies by operating electric power plants. This stage of an additional 1500 MW or more capacity is put into operation through the implementation of a number of projects.

Five projects are being implemented on 220 kV electrical networks. In this project, 595 MW of transformers with a power and length of 283.4 km of power transmission line are planned to be put into operation.

In the distribution networks with a voltage of 0.4-6-10-35 kV, the construction of a power transmission line with a length of 23.9 thousand km is envisaged, as well, at a voltage of 6-10 kV the number of 3,600 and more transformer points, modernization and construction of the station with voltage 35 kV 40 and above, including the length of 1.2 thousand km of power transmission line, 400 pieces of transformer points with a voltage of 6-10 kV and 15 pieces of 35 kV power plant.

Increasing efficiency and rational use of energy fuel is a priority for generating electro energy , this increase in the use of the share of solid fuel.
            To develop the used power plant, which uses coal found large reserves of coal mines.
            The fulfillment of the priority task of the industry development plans in the recent years according to the sequence are the followings:
            To carry out the work of 2099 MVA transformers in 110-500 kV networks, the length of the transmission line is 933.4 km, the power generating stations generate 2723.2 MWh.

- increasing the regional production of electricity, saving natural gas in the volume of 1.3 billion cubic meters, reducing the energy loss during transportation by 100 million kW / h;

- increase the use of coal in the fuel and energy balance.

To date, in the Zarafshan Valley for electricity in high-voltage lines, eliminate completely or reduce power losses, reduce losses in transformers and electrical installations, determine the optimal regimes, and carry out scientific research to create an energy-saving device.

Open Society "Navoi thermal power station" worked with a capacity of 25 thousand kilowatts, today its power passes completely new systems. The construction of a CCP (combined cycle plant) unit with a capacity of 478 MW has been completed, and in the second stage projects for the construction of modern combined-cycle gas turbines with capacities of 450 MW will be carried out. Shares of large enterprises and industries of the Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combine, Navoiazot, and the joint-stock company Kazilumtsement are increasing in the economy of the Republic and in the activities of small businesses and private entrepreneurship related to the investment projects of these power plants.

Enterprises which have 1 thousand 725 workers, pay attention to that one. To develop the old power station for 1 kWh of electricity, 360-400 grams of conventional fuel is used, at the facilities of modern CCP this indication is 220-235 grams. The introduced new device of the enterprise will save in the year more than 700 million cubic meters of natural fuel, gas. In recent years, enterprises are getting to produce 8 billion 871 million kilowatt hours of electricity in the year.

The present time draws attention to the foundation with the implementation of projects with new technologies and reconstruction of existing facilities. By the introduction of this project the enterprise generates 200-220 million kilowatt-hours of additional electricity per year.

Currently, the thermal power plant is intensively performing work on a new project for the construction of a 450 MW CCP unit. Due to this project, the amount of electricity generated is still increasing in the power plant. Enterprises are not only a source of electricity, but also provide heat to the population and the economy. The enterprise generates 8 billion 660 million kWh of electric power and provides 126 production enterprises and entities with 2 million Gkal of thermal energy for entrepreneurs on the basis of the contract.

Present time, a combined-cycle plant with a capacity of 478 MW per hour produces 40 Gcal of thermal energy. At the second stage of the CCP, 450 MW per hour, 200 Gcal of thermal energy are generated.

Recovering the thermal capacity of exhausted reserves of these power plants, and also fully meets the requirement of thermal energy consumption of the country. The enterprises introduced by innovative projects play an important role in ensuring the demand of small business and a private entrepreneur of thermal energy. Just entering one CCP unit per year makes it possible to save 400 million cubic meters of natural gas.

Scientific priority for the regional energy:

Modernization used electrical installations in industrial enterprises, automation systems and improvement of the protection against damage.

           In order to increase the efficiency of electricity consumption of the main and additional electrical installations of mining and metallurgical enterprises, improve operating modes.

Creation of technology to increase the efficiency of production, transmission, distribution and consumption of electricity.

Creation of technology to increase electricity production by studying the way using unconventional sources of electricity.

Alternative energy sources

 Solar energy. Uzbekistan has a huge potential of renewable energy sources.  The highest potential in Uzbekistan is solar energy.

The climatic and geographical conditions of Uzbekistan make it possible to use actively solar energy to produce electricity and heat energy on an industrial scale. Solar energy - a renewable energy source, convenient and easy to use, perspective in terms of practical application.

The gross potential of solar energy in Uzbekistan is estimated at about 51 billion t.o.e., and technical - in 177 million t.o.e., which is more than three times the current annual volume of fossil fuel extraction in the country.

Uzbekistan has intensive solar radiation and the power plant, which will be based on the most advanced photovoltaic technology, will allow the government of Uzbekistan to expand the use of renewable energy sources in the energy sector. The government plans until 2031 to generate more than 20% of its energy needs through renewable energy sources, including solar energy.

Today, in five regions of Uzbekistan in Samarkand, Surkhandarya, Kashkadarya, Namangan and Navoi regions, it is planned to build solar photoeletric stations with large capacities.

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is financing the construction of a 100 MW solar power plant in the Samarkand region of Uzbekistan. ADB will also assist in developing the capacity and other partners, in particular, the International Solar Energy Institute, which was established in Uzbekistan with the support of ADB.
ADB assistance is provided from the resources of the Asian Development Fund.

The main tasks and activities of the International Solar Energy Institute will be the implementation of high-tech developments in the field of industrial use of solar energy; Preparation of proposals on the practical use of the potential of solar energy in various sectors of the economy and the social sphere on the basis of advanced and cost-effective technologies; Implementation of applied research related to the use of solar energy in various sectors of the economy, including technologies for the synthesis of special materials and heat treatment; Coordination of work on developing documentation for major projects in the field of solar energy.

Uzbekistan has accumulated considerable experience in conducting scientific and experimental research in the field of the use of alternative energy sources, primarily solar energy, for which development has been carried out for many decades.  There is a scientific and experimental center in the republic, which has no analogues in Central Asia - SPO "Physics-Sun" of the Academy of Sciences, the results of which have received world recognition.

The most active and effective  research and development work on the creation of low-potential installations for hot water and heat supply, photoelectric and thermodynamic transformations for obtaining electricity, the use of solar energy in the synthesis of special materials, heat treatment of materials and structures are carrying out.

The results of the conducted researches find out wide experimental practical application in various branches and spheres of the country's economy. More than ten years in the republic, the production and experimental use of the system of hot water supply of residential houses and social facilities on the basis of solar water heating plants is being carried out. Production of photoelectric installations of various capacities was mastered. Many universities and vocational colleges provide trainings for qualified personnel in this field.

The conditions created in Uzbekistan and the objective prerequisites for the practical application of solar energy serve as a basis for using this region as a platform for the experimental introduction of advanced technologies in this sphere, not only in the republic, but throughout Central Asia.

The Kyzylkum region is considered to be a sunny region of Uzbekistan. If we take into account that in our region the days last long, then solar energy in summer days can be used for 15-16 hours. If we take into account that some inhabitants and yurts of shepherds are located much farther from the centers of the electric power network, it can be realized that supply of these places of energy is considered to be economically effective using solar cells. In the regions, sunny days exceed 3000 hours per year. During this time on 1 m2 the surface supplies 1200-2000 kW of energy.

In Kyzylkum region, on 1 m 2, the surface falls to 1600-2000 kW per hour, amount of energy. This means that in the region, solar energy provides a great opportunity to receive electrical and thermal energy. In Uzbekistan, based on the state program, solar energy is being developed, due to this, it is planned to build a solar photoelecric plant with the capacity of 100 MW in the Karmana district. In addition, the building of a photovoltaic power plant with a capacity of 1 MW in Zarafshan is planned.

Wind energy. The Republic of Uzbekistan has significant wind resources suitable for the development of commercially successful large-scale wind farms (WEC).

Based on Atlas developed by Uzbekenergo, two prospective areas were identified - in Navoi region and in the south of Karakalpakstan for further detailed studies to clarify the VEP of these areas. At each of the areas, meteorological masts 85 meters high were installed with instruments for determining the speed and direction of the wind, as well as the density and temperature of the air. Through the satellite system, these devices transmit information to the server online for further analysis. This analysis will be used to determine the most optimal unit capacity of wind generators and calculate the potential generation of electricity when preparing an investment project.

The windy atlas of Uzbekistan shows that in the Kyzylkum region the wind speed at an altitude of 80 m is from 5.5 to 6.25 m / s. The measured wind speed in the Zarafshan region during the 12 month period was 7.92 m / s at an altitude of 85 m above ground level. A high degree of suitability of the measured data at the appropriate altitudes (96.2% at an altitude of 85 m). The long-term average (20 years) at an altitude of 85 m is 7.9 m / s.

According to “the Low-Carbon Development Strategy” of the Republic of Uzbekistan, by 2030 the Republic is planning to increase the production of electric power by the means of alternative resources. 

According to current estimates, the installed wind power equipment capacity can reach 520 gigawatts. This will provide 25 percent of Uzbekistan's energy needs.

The use of biomass. Biomass has been used for many years in agriculture, in homes and on family farms in Uzbekistan. Manure is used in many traditional practices, such as aerobic digestion (composting), anaerobic digestion (bioprotection), and as a direct application as an organic fertilizer. Biomass was also a traditional source of energy for biogas production. Uzbekistan has a biomass potential of about 3,500 MWh (IDEAS, 2008).

Geothermal resources are available in almost all regions of the Republic. Long-term researches have allowed to reveal on territory of Uzbekistan 8 large pools with hydrothermal resources. The gross potential of geothermal waters is estimated at 244.2 thousand tce, technical potential is not determined. The average temperature of geothermal waters in the country is 45.5 ° C. The greatest thermal potential of groundwater is recorded in Bukhara (56.0 ºС) and Syrdarya (50.0 ºС) regions. The subsoil heat is available for use in a number of other areas. In the future, this heat will be possible to use almost everywhere, because in the territory of Uzbekistan at depths of 4000-6000 meters the temperature of rocks is kept in the range from 70 to 300 degrees Celsius. Despite good research on geothermal reservoirs, the use of thermal water is still at an early stage. The development of thermal spring is provided by the national energy program.


The existing FIEZ in Navoi gives an opportunity to attract foreign investors and makes it possible to create supplementary parts of solar and wind power stations.

Experimental and pilot projects on the use of solar and biogas energy will be supported with the involvement of the Asian Development Bank and other international financial institutions.

According to leading experts, Uzbekistan has only favorable opportunities for the implementation of this project in terms of geographical location and climatic conditions. By the number of sunny days per year, which is more than 320 days, our country surpasses many regions of the world.

According to the estimates of the Asian and World banks, the gross potential of solar energy in Uzbekistan exceeds 51 billion tons of oil equivalent. Due to these resources, according to experts' calculations, it is possible to produce electricity 40 times higher than the annual electricity consumption in our country this year.

It should be noted that dozens of installations for converting solar energy are already operating in various regions of the country, through which stable electric and heat supply of individual facilities is ensured. The production of silicon photoelectric cells is designed, the technology of which takes into account the natural conditions of our regions. A technology is being developed for compact low-power solar photovoltaic devices for charging mobile phones, laptops, the experimental batches of which are successfully tested

The most active and effective  research and development work on the creation of low-potential installations for hot water and heat supply, photoelectric and thermodynamic transformations for obtaining electricity, the use of solar energy in the synthesis of special materials, heat treatment of materials and structures are carrying out.